Details

Laser Printing of Functional Materials


Laser Printing of Functional Materials

3D Microfabrication, Electronics and Biomedicine
1. Aufl.

von: Alberto Piqué, Pere Serra

142,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-VCH
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 04.01.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9783527805136
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 280

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Beschreibungen

The first book on this hot topic includes such major research areas as printed electronics, sensors, biomaterials and 3D cell printing. Well-structured and with a strong focus on applications, the text is divided in three sections with the first describing the fundamentals of laser transfer. The second provides an overview of the wide variety of materials that can be used for laser transfer processing, while the final section comprehensively discusses a number of practical uses, including printing of electronic materials, printing of 3D structures as well as large-area, high-throughput applications. The whole is rounded off by a look at the future for laser printed materials. Invaluable reading for a broad audience ranging from material developers to mechanical engineers, from academic researchers to industrial developers and for those interested in the development of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques.
Preface xv Part I Fundamentals 1 1 Introduction to Laser-Induced Transfer and Other Associated Processes 3Pere Serra and Alberto Piqué 1.1 LIFT and Its Derivatives 3 1.2 The Laser Transfer Universe 5 1.3 Book Organization and Chapter Overview 8 1.4 Looking Ahead 12 Acknowledgments 13 References 13 2 Origins of Laser-Induced Transfer Processes 17Christina Kryou and Ioanna Zergioti 2.1 Introduction 17 2.2 EarlyWork in Laser-Induced Transfer 17 2.3 Overview of Laser-Induced Forward Transfer 19 2.3.1 Transferring Metals and Other Materials with Laser-Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) 21 2.3.2 Limitations of the Basic LIFT Technique 22 2.3.3 The Role of the Donor Substrate 22 2.3.4 Use of a Dynamic Release Layer (DRL)-LIFT 24 2.3.5 LIFT with Ultrashort Laser Pulses 25 2.4 Other Laser-Based Transfer Techniques Inspired by LIFT 27 2.4.1 Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation-DirectWrite (MAPLE-DW) Technique 27 2.4.2 LIFT of Composite Matrix-Based Materials 27 2.4.3 Hydrogen-Assisted LIFT 28 2.4.4 Long-Pulsed LIFT 28 2.4.5 Laser Molecular Implantation 29 2.4.6 Laser-Induced Thermal Imaging 30 2.5 Other Studies on LIFT 31 2.6 Conclusions 31 References 32 3 LIFT Using a Dynamic Release Layer 37Alexandra Palla Papavlu and Thomas Lippert 3.1 Introduction 37 3.2 Absorbing Release Layer – Triazene Polymer 40 3.3 Front- and Backside Ablation of the Triazene Polymer 42 3.4 Examples of Materials Transferred by TP-LIFT 43 3.5 First Demonstration of Devices: OLEDs and Sensors 47 3.5.1 Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLEDs) 47 3.5.2 Sensors 49 3.6 Variation of the DRL Approach: Reactive LIFT 52 3.7 Conclusions and Perspectives 54 Acknowledgments 55 Conflict of Interest 55 References 55 4 Laser-Induced Forward Transfer of Fluids 63Juan M. Fernández-Pradas, Pol Sopeña, and Pere Serra 4.1 Introduction to the LIFT of Fluids 63 4.1.1 Origin 64 4.1.2 Principle of Operation 65 4.1.3 Developments 66 4.2 Mechanisms of Fluid Ejection and Deposition 67 4.2.1 Jet Formation 67 4.2.2 Droplet Deposition 69 4.3 Printing Droplets through LIFT 72 4.3.1 Role of the Laser Parameters 72 4.3.2 Role of the Fluid Properties 76 4.3.3 Setup Parameters 76 4.4 Printing Lines and Patterns with LIFT 78 4.5 Summary 81 Acknowledgments 82 References 82 5 Advances in Blister-Actuated Laser-Induced Forward Transfer (BA-LIFT) 91Emre Turkoz, Romain Fardel, and Craig B. Arnold 5.1 Introduction 91 5.2 BA-LIFT Basics 93 5.3 Why BA-LIFT? 94 5.4 Blister Formation 97 5.4.1 Dynamics of Blister Formation 97 5.4.2 Finite Element Modeling of Blister Formation 102 5.5 Jet Formation and Expansion 105 5.5.1 Computational Fluid Dynamics Model 106 5.5.2 Effect of the Laser Energy 108 5.5.3 Effect of the Ink Film Properties 111 5.6 Application to the Transfer of Delicate Materials 113 5.7 Conclusions 117 References 117 6 Film-Free LIFT (FF-LIFT) 123Salvatore Surdo, Alberto Diaspro, andMartí Duocastella 6.1 Introduction 123 6.2 Rheological Considerations in Traditional LIFT of Liquids 125 6.2.1 The Challenges behind the Preparation of aThin Liquid Film 125 6.2.1.1 The Role of Spontaneous Instabilities 126 6.2.1.2 The Role of External Instabilities 128 6.2.2 Technologies for Thin-Film Preparation 129 6.2.3 Wetting of the Receiver Substrate 130 6.3 Fundamentals of Film-Free LIFT 131 6.3.1 Cavitation-Induced Phenomena for Printing 131 6.3.2 Jet Formation in Film-Free LIFT 132 6.3.3 Differences with LIFT of Liquids 134 6.4 Implementation and Optical Considerations 135 6.4.1 Laser Source 135 6.4.2 Forward (Inverted) versus Backward (Upright) Systems 136 6.4.3 Spherical Aberration and Chromatic Dispersion 137 6.5 Applications 138 6.5.1 Film-Free LIFT for Printing Biomaterials 139 6.5.2 Film-Free LIFT for Micro-Optical Element Fabrication 140 6.6 Conclusions and Future Outlook 141 References 142 Part II The Role of the Laser–Material Interaction in LIFT 147 7 Laser-Induced Forward Transfer of Metals 149David A.Willis 7.1 Introduction, Background, and Overview 149 7.2 Modeling, Simulation, and Experimental Studies of the Transfer Process 151 7.2.1 Thermal Processes: Film Heating, Removal, Transfer, and Deposition 151 7.2.2 Parametric Effects 153 7.2.2.1 Laser Fluence and Film Thickness 154 7.2.2.2 Donor-Film Gap Spacing 156 7.2.2.3 PulseWidth 157 7.2.3 Droplet-Mode Deposition 160 7.2.4 Characterization of Deposited Structures: Adhesion, Composition, and Electrical Resistivity 163 7.3 Advanced Modeling of LIFT 165 7.4 Research Needs and Future Directions 167 7.5 Conclusions 169 References 170 8 LIFT of Solid Films (Ceramics and Polymers) 175Ben Mills, Daniel J. Heath,Matthias Feinaeugle, and RobertW. Eason 8.1 Introduction 175 8.2 Assisted Release Processes 176 8.2.1 Optimization of LIFT Transfer of Ceramics via Laser Pulse Interference 176 8.2.1.1 Standing-Wave Interference from Multiple Layers 176 8.2.1.2 Ballistic Laser-Assisted Solid Transfer (BLAST) 177 8.2.2 LIFT Printing of Premachined Ceramic Microdisks 180 8.2.3 Spatial Beam Shaping for Patterned LIFT of Polymer Films 181 8.3 Shadowgraphy Studies and Assisted Capture 184 8.3.1 Shadowgraphic Studies of the Transfer of CeramicThin Films 184 8.3.2 Application of Polymers as Compliant Receivers 186 8.4 Applications in Energy Harvesting 188 8.4.1 LIFT of Chalcogenide Thin Films 189 8.4.2 Fabrication of aThermoelectric Generator on a Polymer-Coated Substrate 190 8.5 Laser-Induced Backward Transfer (LIBT) of Nanoimprinted Polymer 193 8.5.1 Unstructured Carrier Substrate 195 8.5.2 Structured Carrier Substrate 195 8.6 Conclusions 197 Acknowledgments 197 References 197 9 Laser-Induced Forward Transfer of Soft Materials 199Zhengyi Zhang, Ruitong Xiong, and Yong Huang 9.1 Introduction 199 9.2 Background 200 9.3 Jetting Dynamics during Laser Printing of Soft Materials 201 9.3.1 Jet Formation Dynamics during Laser Printing of Newtonian Glycerol Solutions 202 9.3.1.1 Typical Jetting Regimes 202 9.3.1.2 Jetting Regime as Function of Fluid Properties and Laser Fluence 204 9.3.1.3 Jettability Phase Diagram 206 9.3.2 Jet Formation Dynamics during Laser Printing of Viscoelastic Alginate Solutions 208 9.3.2.1 Ink Coating Preparation and Design of Experiments 208 9.3.2.2 Typical Jetting Regimes 209 9.3.2.3 General Observation of the Jetting Dynamics 212 9.3.2.4 Effects of Laser Fluence on Jetting Dynamics 212 9.3.2.5 Effects of Alginate Concentration on Jetting Dynamics 214 9.3.2.6 Jettability Phase Diagram 215 9.4 Laser Printing Applications Using Optimized Printing Conditions 218 9.5 Conclusions and FutureWork 220 Acknowledgments 221 References 222 10 Congruent LIFT with High-Viscosity Nanopastes 227 Raymond C.Y. Auyeung, Heungsoo Kim, and Alberto Piqué 10.1 Introduction 227 10.2 Congruent LIFT (or LDT) 229 10.3 Applications 235 10.4 Achieving Congruent Laser Transfers 242 10.5 Issues and Challenges 245 10.6 Summary 246 Acknowledgment 247 References 247 11 Laser Printing of Nanoparticles 251Urs Zywietz, Tim Fischer, Andrey Evlyukhin, Carsten Reinhardt, and Boris Chichkov 11.1 Introduction, Setup, and Motivation 251 11.2 Laser-Induced Transfer 252 11.3 Materials for Laser Printing of Nanoparticles 254 11.4 Laser Printing from Bulk-Silicon and Silicon Films 254 11.5 Magnetic Resonances of Silicon Particles 261 11.6 Laser Printing from Prestructured Films 261 11.7 Applications: Sensing, Metasurfaces, and Additive Manufacturing 263 11.8 Outlook 266 References 266 Part III Applications 269 12 Laser Printing of ElectronicMaterials 271Philippe Delaporte, Anne-Patricia Alloncle, and Thomas Lippert 12.1 Introduction and Context 271 12.2 Organic Thin-Film Transistor 272 12.2.1 Operation and Characteristics of OTFTs 272 12.2.2 Laser Printing of the Semiconductor Layer 275 12.2.3 Laser Printing of Dielectric Layers 277 12.2.4 Laser Printing of Conducting Layers 279 12.2.5 Single-Step Printing of Full OTFT Device 279 12.3 Organic Light-Emitting Diode 281 12.4 Passive Components 285 12.5 Interconnection and Heterogeneous Integration 287 12.6 Conclusion 290 References 291 13 Laser Printing of Chemical and Biological Sensors 299Ioanna Zergioti 13.1 Introduction 299 13.2 Conventional PrintingMethods for the Fabrication of Chemical and Biological Sensors 300 13.2.1 Contact PrintingMethods 301 13.2.1.1 Pin Printing Approach 301 13.2.1.2 Microcontact Printing (or Microstamping) Technique 302 13.2.1.3 Nanotip Printing 303 13.2.2 Noncontact Printing Methods 303 13.2.2.1 Photochemistry-Based Printing 303 13.2.2.2 Inkjet Printing Technique 304 13.2.2.3 Electrospray Deposition (ESD) 304 13.3 Laser-Based Printing Techniques: Introduction 305 13.3.1 Laser-Induced Forward Transfer 305 13.3.2 LIFT of Liquid Films 307 13.4 Applications of Direct Laser Printing 308 13.4.1 Biosensors 308 13.4.1.1 Background 308 13.4.1.2 Printing of Biological Materials for Biosensors 309 13.4.2 Chemical Sensors 316 13.5 Conclusions 319 List of Abbreviations 319 References 320 14 Laser Printing of Proteins and Biomaterials 329Alexandra Palla Papavlu, Valentina Dinca, and Maria Dinescu 14.1 Introduction 329 14.2 LIFT of DNA in Solid and Liquid Phase 332 14.3 LIFT of Biomolecules 333 14.3.1 Streptavidin and Avidin–Biotin Complex 333 14.3.2 Amyloid Peptides 337 14.3.3 Odorant-Binding Proteins 339 14.3.4 Liposomes 340 14.4 Conclusions and Perspectives 343 Acknowledgments 343 Conflict of Interest 343 References 344 15 Laser-Assisted Bioprinting of Cells for Tissue Engineering 349Olivia Kérourédan,Murielle Rémy, Hugo Oliveira, Fabien Guillemot, and Raphaël Devillard 15.1 Laser-Assisted Bioprinting of Cells 349 15.1.1 The History of Cell Bioprinting and Advantages of Laser-Assisted Bioprinting for Tissue Engineering 349 15.1.2 Technical Specifications of Laser-Assisted Bioprinting of Cells 353 15.1.3 Effect of Laser Process and Printing Parameters on Cell Behavior 356 15.2 Laser-Assisted Bioprinting for Cell Biology Studies 358 15.2.1 Study of Cell–Cell and Cell–Microenvironment Interactions 358 15.2.2 Cancer Research 359 15.3 Laser-Assisted Bioprinting for Tissue-Engineering Applications 359 15.3.1 Skin 360 15.3.2 Blood Vessels 362 15.3.3 Heart 364 15.3.4 Bone 365 15.3.5 Nervous System 367 15.4 Conclusion 368 References 369 16 Industrial, Large-Area, and High-Throughput LIFT/LIBT Digital Printing 375Guido Hennig, Gerhard Hochstein, and Thomas Baldermann 16.1 Introduction 375 16.1.1 State of the Art in Digital Printing 376 16.1.2 History of Lasersonic LIFT 376 16.2 Potential Markets and their Technical Demands on Lasersonic LIFT 377 16.2.1 Digital Printing Market Expectations and Challenges 377 16.2.2 Demands on a LIFT/LIBT Printing Unit for Special Printing Markets 378 16.3 Lasersonic LIFT/LIBT PrintingMethod 379 16.3.1 LIFT for Absorbing and LIBT for Transparent Inks 379 16.4 Optical Concept and Pulse Control of the Lasersonic Printing Machine 382 16.4.1 Ultrafast Pulse Modulation at High Power Level 382 16.4.2 Time Schemes 383 16.4.3 Data Flow 385 16.4.4 Ultrafast Scan of the Laser Beam 385 16.5 The Four-Color Lasersonic Printing Machine 387 16.5.1 Large-Area, High-Throughput LIFT/LIBT Inline R2R Printing System 387 16.5.2 Printing Heads for Absorptive (Black) and for Transparent (Colored) Inks 388 16.5.3 Inking Units 390 16.5.4 Synthetic Approaches to the Absorption Layer of the LIBT Donor Surface 392 16.6 Print Experiments and Results 392 16.7 Discussion of Effects 397 16.7.1 LIFT Process with Continuous-Wave Laser Source and Fast Modulation 397 16.7.2 Special Test Pattern to Study the Transfer Behavior at High Pixel Rate 399 16.8 Future Directions 401 16.9 Summary 402 Acknowledgments 403 References 403 17 LIFT of 3D Metal Structures 405Ralph Pohl, ClaasW. Visser, and Gert-willem Römer 17.1 Introduction 405 17.2 Basic Aspects of LIFT of Metals for 3D Structures 407 17.2.1 Ejection Regimes of Pure Metal Picosecond LIFT 408 17.2.1.1 Velocity of the Ejected Donor Material 409 17.2.1.2 Origin of Fragments in Cap-Ejection Regime 409 17.2.2 Droplet Impact and Solidification 411 17.3 Properties of LIFT-Printed FreestandingMetal Pillars 413 17.3.1 Reproducibility 414 17.3.2 Metallurgical Microstructure 416 17.3.3 Mechanical Properties 417 17.3.4 Electrical Properties 418 17.3.5 Inclined Pillars 420 17.4 Demonstrators and Potential Applications 420 17.5 Conclusions and Outlook 423 References 423 18 Laser Transfer of Entire Structures and Functional Devices 427Alberto Piqué, Nicholas A. Charipar, Raymond C. Y. Auyeung, Scott A. Mathews, and Heungsoo Kim 18.1 Introduction 427 18.2 Early Demonstrations of LIFT of Entire Structures 428 18.3 Process Dynamics 431 18.3.1 Lase-and-Place 432 18.4 Laser Transfer of Intact Structures 435 18.4.1 Laser Transfer of Metal Foils for Electrical Interconnects 436 18.5 Laser Transfer of Components for Embedded Electronics 437 18.6 Outlook 438 18.7 Summary 440 Acknowledgments 441 References 441 Index 445
Dr. Alberto Pique is Head of the Materials and Systems Branch in the Materials Science Division at the Naval Research Laboratory. His research focuses on the study and applications of laser-material interactions. Dr. Pique and his group have pioneered the use of laser-based direct-write techniques for the rapid prototyping of electronic, sensor and micro-power generation devices. Dr. Pique holds a B.S. and M.S. in Physics from Rutgers University and a Ph.D. in Materials Science and Engineering from the University of Maryland. He is a SPIE (2012) and APS (2014) Fellow. To date, his research has resulted in over 200 scientific publications, 14 book chapters and 22 U.S. patents. Dr. Pere Serra is professor at the Department of Applied Physics of the University of Barcelona. He received his Ph.D. from the same university in 1997. His research has been devoted to multiple topics in the laser materials processing area, from pulsed laser deposition to laser surface treatments. In the last years he has focused his activity on laser microfabrication technologies, with a special attention to laser printing techniques for the fabrication of biomedical and printed electronics devices. He has co-authored 95 publications in international journals, has given more than 20 invited talks, and served as co-chair and committee member in numerous international conferences. He is currently co-editor of the Journal of Laser Micro/Nanoengineering.
The first book on this hot topic includes such major research areas as printed electronics, sensors, biomaterials and 3D cell printing.              Well-structured and with a strong focus on applications, the text is divided in three sections with the first describing the fundamentals of laser transfer. The second provides an overview of the wide variety of materials that can be used for laser transfer processing, while the final section comprehensively discusses a number of practical uses, including printing of electronic materials, printing of 3D structures as well as large-area, high-throughput applications. The whole is rounded off by a look at the future for laser printed materials. Invaluable reading for a broad audience ranging from material developers to mechanical engineers, from academic researchers to industrial developers and for those interested in the development of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques.

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