Details

Sustainable Catalysis


Sustainable Catalysis

Energy-Efficient Reactions and Applications
1. Aufl.

von: Rafael Luque, Frank Leung-Yuk Lam

115,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-VCH
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 27.12.2017
ISBN/EAN: 9783527693023
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 368

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Beschreibungen

Highlighting sustainable catalytic processes in synthetic organic chemistry, this useful guide places special emphasis on catalytic reactions carried out at room temperature. It describes the fundamentals, summarizes key advances, and covers applications in the field of organic synthesis, biomass conversion, and pollution control. Throughout, the latest research from various disciplines is combined, such as homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, biocatalysis, and photocatalysis. The book concludes with a chapter on future trends and energy challenges for the latter half of the 21st century and two case studies. With its multidisciplinary approach this is an essential reference for academic and industrial researchers in catalysis science aiming to design more sustainable and energy-efficient processes.
1 Introduction to Room-Temperature Catalysis 1Eduardo J. Garcia-Suarez and Anders Riisager 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Room-Temperature Homogeneous Catalysts 2 1.2.1 Ionic-Liquid-Based Catalytic Systems at Room Temperature 2 1.2.2 Transition Metal Homogeneous Catalysts 6 1.2.2.1 Group 9-Based Homogeneous Catalysts (Co, Rh, Ir) 6 1.2.2.2 Group 10-Based Homogeneous Catalysts (Ni, Pd, Pt) 7 1.2.2.3 Group 11-Based Homogeneous Catalysts (Ag, Au) 10 1.3 Room-Temperature Heterogeneous Catalysts 10 1.3.1 Group 9-Based Heterogeneous Catalysts (Co, Rh, Ir) 11 1.3.2 Group 10-Based Heterogeneous Catalysts (Ni, Pd, Pt) 13 1.3.3 Group 11-Based Heterogeneous Catalysts (Cu, Pt, Au) 23 1.4 Conclusions and Perspectives 29 References 31 2 Functionalized Ionic Liquid-based Catalytic Systems with Diversified Performance Enhancements 35Shiguo Zhang and Yanlong Gu 2.1 Introduction 35 2.2 Functionalized ILs for Enhancing Catalytic Activity 36 2.3 Functionalized ILs for Improving Reaction Selectivity 38 2.4 Functionalized ILs for Facilitating Catalyst Recycling and Product Isolation 40 2.5 Functionalized ILs for Making Relay Catalysis 43 2.6 Cation and Anion Synergistic Catalysis in Ionic Liquids 45 2.7 Functionalized ILs for Aqueous Catalysis 46 2.8 Catalysis by Porous Poly-ILs 47 2.9 Functionalized IL-Based Carbon Material for Catalysis 49 2.10 Summary and Conclusions 54 References 54 3 Heterogeneous Room Temperature Catalysis – Nanomaterials 59Liyu Chen and Yingwei Li 3.1 Introduction 59 3.2 Solid-Acid-Based Nanomaterials 60 3.3 Grafted-Metal-Ions-Based Nanomaterial 65 3.4 Metal NPs-Based Nanomaterial 67 3.4.1 Metal NPs Stabilized by Ligands 67 3.4.2 Metal NPs@Polymers 68 3.4.3 Metal NPs@Metal Oxides 70 3.4.4 Metal NPs@Carbonaceous Support 72 3.4.5 Metal NPs@Siliceous Base Support 74 3.4.6 Metal NPs@MOF Nanocomposites 77 3.5 Metal Oxide NPs-Based Nanomaterial 82 3.6 Summary and Conclusions 83 References 84 4 Biocatalysis at Room Temperature 89Ivaldo Itabaiana Jr and Rodrigo O. M. A. De Souza 4.1 Introduction 89 4.2 Transaminases 90 4.2.1 General Features 90 4.2.2 Transaminase Applications at Room Temperature 90 4.3 Hydrolases 98 4.3.1 General Features 98 4.3.2 Application of Hydrolases at Room Temperature 100 4.3.2.1 Lipases 100 4.3.2.2 Aldol Additions 101 4.3.2.3 Michael Addition 102 4.3.2.4 Mannich Reaction 102 4.3.2.5 C-Heteroatom and Heteroatom–Heteroatom Bond Formations 103 4.3.2.6 Epoxidation 103 4.3.2.7 Synthesis of Heterocycles 104 4.3.2.8 Kinetic Resolutions 105 4.3.3 Cutinases 107 4.4 Laccases 108 4.4.1 General Features 108 4.4.2 Applications of Laccases 110 4.5 Enzymes in Ionic Liquids 115 4.5.1 General Features 115 References 125 5 Room Temperature Catalysis Enabled by Light 135Timothy Noël 5.1 Introduction 135 5.2 UV Photochemistry 136 5.3 Visible Light Photoredox Catalysis 139 5.4 Room Temperature Cross-Coupling Enabled by Light 141 5.5 Photochemistry and Microreactor Technology –A Perfect Match? 144 5.6 The Use of Photochemistry in Material Science 146 5.7 Solar Fuels 149 5.8 Conclusion 151 References 151 6 Mechanochemically Enhanced Organic Transformations 155Davin Tan and Tomislav Frišcic 6.1 Introduction 155 6.2 Mechanochemical Techniques and Mechanisms: Neat versus Liquid-Assisted Grinding (LAG) 156 6.3 Oxidation and Reduction Using Mechanochemistry 160 6.3.1 Direct Oxidation of Organic Substrates Using Oxone 160 6.3.2 Mechanochemical Halogenations Aided by Oxone 162 6.3.3 Reduction Reactions by Mechanochemistry 163 6.4 Electrocyclic Reactions: Equilibrium and Templating in Mechanochemistry 165 6.4.1 The Diels–Alder Reaction: Mechanochemical Equilibrium in Reversible C—C Bond Formation 165 6.4.2 Photochemical [2+2] Cycloaddition during Grinding: Supramolecular Catalysis and Structure Templating 167 6.5 Recent Advances in Metal-CatalyzedMechanochemical Reactions 168 6.5.1 Copper-Catalyzed [2+3] Cycloaddition (Huisgen Coupling) 168 6.5.2 Olefin Metathesis by Ball Milling 169 6.5.3 Mechanochemical C—H Bond Activation 170 6.5.4 Cyclopropanation of Alkenes Using Silver Foil as a Catalyst Source 171 6.6 New Frontiers in Organic Synthesis Enabled by Mechanochemistry 171 6.6.1 Synthesis of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) 172 6.6.2 Reactivity Enabled or Facilitated by Mechanochemistry 173 6.6.3 Trapping Unstable Reaction Intermediates 175 6.7 Conclusion and Outlook 176 Acknowledgments 176 References 176 7 Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling in Continuous Flow at Room andMild Temperature 183Christophe Len 7.1 Introduction 183 7.2 Suzuki Cross-Coupling in Continuous Flow 184 7.3 Heck Cross-Coupling in Continuous Flow 192 7.4 Murahashi Cross-Coupling in Continuous Flow 199 7.5 Concluding Remarks 202 References 202 8 Catalysis for Environmental Applications 207Changseok Han, Endalkachew Sahle-Demessie, Afzal Shah, Saima Nawaz, Latif-ur-Rahman, Niall B.McGuinness, Suresh C. Pillai, Hyeok Choi, Dionysios, D. Dionysiou, andMallikarjuna N. Nadagouda 8.1 Introduction 207 8.2 Ferrate (FeO42?) forWater Treatment 208 8.3 Magnetically Separable Ferrite forWater Treatment 209 8.3.1 Magnetic Nanoparticles 209 8.3.2 Magnetic Recovery of Materials Used forWater Treatment 211 8.3.3 Ferrite Photocatalyst forWater Treatment 212 8.4 UV, Solar, and Visible Light-Activated TiO2 Photocatalysts for Environmental Application 212 8.5 Catalysis for Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater and Soils 215 8.5.1 Catalytic Oxidative Pathways 215 8.5.2 Catalytic Reductive Pathways 217 8.5.3 Prospects and Limitations 218 8.6 Novel Catalysis for Environmental Applications 218 8.6.1 Graphene and Graphene Composites 219 8.6.2 Perovskites and Perovskites Composites 221 8.6.3 Graphitic Carbon Nitride (g-C3N4) and g-C3N4 Composites 222 8.7 Summary and Conclusions 223 Acknowledgments 224 Disclaimer 224 References 224 9 Future Development in Room-Temperature Catalysis and Challenges in the Twenty-first Century 231Fannie P. Y. Lau, R. Luque, and Frank L. Y. Lam Case Study 1: Magnetic Pd Catalysts for Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation to Benzaldehyde 237Yingying Li, Frank L.-Y. Lam, and Xijun Hu 1.1 Introduction 237 1.2 Pd/MagSBA Magnetic Catalyst for Selective Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation to Benzaldehyde 239 1.2.1 Results and Discussion 239 1.2.1.1 Characterization 239 1.2.1.2 Effect of Reaction Temperature 240 1.2.1.3 Effect of Pd Loading 241 1.2.1.4 Recycling Test 246 1.3 Summary and Conclusions 246 References 247 Case Study 2: Development of Hydrothermally Stable Functional Materials for Sustainable Conversion of Biomass to Furan Compounds 251Amrita Chatterjee, Xijun Hu, and Frank L.-Y. Lam 2.1 Introduction 251 2.2 Metal–Organic-Framework as a Potential Catalyst for Biomass Valorization 254 2.3 Xylose Dehydration to Furfural Using Metal–Organic-Framework, MIL-101(Cr) 255 2.3.1 Xylose Dehydration Catalyzed by Organosilane Coated MIL-101(Cr) 255 2.3.2 Xylose to Furfural Transformation Catalyzed by Fly-Ash and MIL-101(Cr) Composite 258 2.3.3 Xylose to Furfural Transformation Catalyzed by Tin Phosphate and MIL-101(Cr) Composite 262 2.3.4 Role of Acid Sites, Textural Properties and Hydrothermal Stability of Catalyst in Xylose Dehydration Reaction 264 2.4 Conclusion 267 References 268 Index 273
Rafael Luque is Ramon y Cajal Fellow at the University of Cordoba (UCO) in Spain. He studied chemistry at UCO and obtained his PhD in 2005. He then spent a postdoctoral placement in the Green Chemistry Centre of Excellence at the University of York, UK, with Prof. James Clark (2005-2008). He was also appointed as visiting professor and distinguished engineering fellow of the Departament of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering from the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) in 2013. Currently, he is visiting professor from the Xiamen University (China) and the Universidade Federal de Pelotas (Brazil). Prof. Luque has published over 260 research articles, filed 3 patent applications, and edited 8 books. His research is focused on (nano)materials science, heterogeneous (nano)catalysis, microwave and flow chemistry, biofuels and green chemical methods in synthetic organic chemistry. Frank Leung-Yuk Lam is a visiting assistant professor at the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) since 2012. He received his PhD at the HKUST in 2005 and then worked as a postdoctoral researcher in both University of Hong Kong and the HKUST. He has been a visiting assistant professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering in the Technion Israel Institute of Technology (TIIT) in Israel, doing research on functional materials for environment and teaching about environmental engineering. His research is focused on separation, air pollution control and wastewater treatment through adsorption and heterogeneous catalysis.

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